These maps were created using SEAI’s small-level BER data (05/2021) & the Valuation Office’s floor areas (2021). The code used to generate them is open-source and available here, however, as the data is closed-access they are not reproducible without access to the underlying data.

Dublin City

Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown


South Dublin

Overview by Building Type



period_built description
PRE19 Before 1919
19_45 1919 - 19_45
11L 2011 or Later


  • Public Sector Building demand isn’t included as it currently isn’t possible to locate all buildings within Small Areas as the data is at postcode level.
  • Buildings with floor areas much larger than expected for the use type were removed.
  • Process heat >100°C is not included in these maps. We can have a seperate map showing the process heat hot spots.


Commercial heat demand
= fossil fuel energy benchmark [kWh/year.m^2]
* assumed boiler efficiency of 85%
* floor area [m^2]
+ industrial space heat energy benchmark [kWh/year.m^2]
* assumed boiler efficiency of 85%
* floor area [m^2]
  • Buildings with 0 fossil fuel demand are assumed to have no heat demand.
  • CIBSE TM46 & CIBSE Guide F floor area energy benchmarks are reflective of current Dublin commercial building demands
  • All buildings within each energy benchmark category are well represented by this category.
Residential heat demand = SUM(Main & Supplementary Space & Hot Water Demand [kWh/year])
  • SEAI’s DEAP model is representative of actual heat demands. In reality, DEAP tends to overestimate demands in older buildings it and underestimate it in newer.
  • Unknown buildings are well represented by archetypes. These archetypes were created by filling unknown buildings iteratively with a sample of nearby, known buildings with a sample size of greater than 30. So if there is enough buildings of the same Small Area and Period Built this average is used, otherwise Electoral District, then Postcode, and finally Period Built.

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